Islam, the complete code of life ordained by the Sustainer of the Universe, emerged as a Socio-economic and Political power in the Seventh Century. This unpredictable and sweeping emergence was a result of the Muslims disciplining their lives in accordance with the injunctions of the Holy Quran, and left an everlasting influence on the humanity.
The exalted person upon whom this code of life was revealed on Muhammad peace be upon him was born in Makkah on the twentieth of April 571 A.D. and breathed his last in Madina in 632 A.D. During this period the major empires neighbouring Arabia were the Persian Sasanids and the Bazantines, who were locked in a constant warfare with Arabia, whose only previous contribution had been to send successive waves of Semitic nomads to invade the fertile crescent, was held by clans. These included Christian, Jewish, and most Arabian tribes, including Muhammad's peace be upon him own tribe Quraish. Allah Almighty final message to mankind revealed on his last Messenger Muhammad peace be upon him, preserved in the Holy Quran attracted a few truth loving people but provoked Quraish, who then controlled the First house of God Almighty.
In 622 A.D., Makkah being no more amenable to his message, Messenger of God Almighty undertook migration to Madina, and this feat of Rasool-Allah marks the start of Muslim era. In Madina, a large number of people embraced Islam. Muhammad peace be upon him stayed in Medina for eight years, during which period he had to fight the most important battles of his life. These battles were fought against the invading Quraish at Badar, Uhud, and Madina itself. Mecca was finally subdued in 630 A.D. & after which the tribes throughout Arabia also submitted to Islam. His successor Khalifa (caliph) Abu-Bakr consolidated this conquest. Later on, the Sasanids were overthrown and the Bazantines expelled from Syria, Egypt, and North Africa. After these conquests, the Muslims penetrated to the Atlantic, the Caucasus, the Oxus, and the Indus without meeting effective opposition. The people of these areas were not forced to accept Islam but adopted it gradually. Today, the influence of Islam can be felt through almost every nook and corner of the globe.
Islam is not a religion. It is a comprehensive system of life in which obedience is collectively carried on by means of the state enterprise. The Islamic State or System is responsible for implementing the commandments of Allah Almighty for making the people obey them. The Messenger peace be upon him first of all implemented such a system, the objective of which was to get the Ummah obey the commandments of God Almighty. So the meaning of the Quran's term, Obedience of Allah Almighty and His Messenger was obeying the commandments of God Almighty, not individually on one's own accord but by means of that system which the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him has established. Allah Almighty laws were close fitted in the Quran and His Messenger peace be upon him as the central authority of the Divine system made the members of the society obey these constitution in consonance with the exigencies of the time, place and circumstances.
The second worth pondering vantage point is the reality that these orders have been enshrined in the Quran, but in most of the matters, only the principle directives have been provided. The responsibility of the Divine System was to develop itself the subsidiaries, the bylaws, of these principles in consultation with the Momineen (believers) to meeting the exigencies of the time. The order of counseling the companions hewn to the God Messenger peace be upon him was segued for this very purpose; so his job is to formulated the subsidiaries, the bylaws of these principles. Take an example: the order of Zakaat had been given at various places of the Quran – but there is no mention of its rate or value anywhere in it. It means it was a directive in principle. Its aim and operation, for the Islamic System was to arrange for the physical nourishment and personality integration of the members of its society. What would be the mode of this arrangement? What would be taken from the haves for this purpose? How would it be spent? All these subsidiaries, this system had to formulate. When the Messenger of God Almighty made for its arrangements, he would have fixed a certain rate (2½%) for it, because, keeping in view the exigencies of the time, this would have accomplished to bear upon the necessities of life. This makes it clear that obedience to Allah and His Messenger did not mean to give Zakaat. But giving 2½ % in the Islamic System of that time had validated the obedience to Allah and His Messenger.
The Islamic System was not confined to the personality of the Messenger Muhammad peace be upon him that this would end with the sad demise of him. It had to flourish and sustain to the day of judgement; so after hi death this system stood established in the form of Khilaafat-i-Rasheda. The obedience of Allah and His Messenger meant obeying the very system the hub of which was the Messenger's successor. Its modality at that time was that the injunctions of the Quran were compiled within the manner these were compiled at the time of the Messenger peace be upon him. It was because these are immutable and unchangeable; none has the right to bring about any kind of change.
» A new transformation in the system: Religion & Politics
The system of Caliphate -Khilaafat- was transformed into aristocracy; Deen did not remain in its genuine form. The dualism of religion and politics crept into it. The Kings, the Salaateen, wielded reins of power in political affairs. And the religious affairs (beliefs, prayers, and personal laws maximally relating to marriage, divorce) were entrusted to the “Ulemas” religious scholars. The concept of obedience to Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) did no longer remain in focus. Its reason was: when the duty of the Government no longer remained confined to the implementation of the Divine constitution, its subordination in the tone and tenor of the subservience to Allah and His Prophet (PBUH) vanished all through.
Then the question was raised, How God Almighty and His Messenger (PBUH) be obeyed? Had the Ummah been fortunate, it would have been decided that the system in which the obeisance to the Divine System was the obeisance to Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) ought to be revitalized. But it was not done so. Then there was no alternate left except this understanding that Allah's subservience be carried out by means of the Quran and that of the Messenger's (PBUH) through his sayings. This became the necessary cause of compiling and regulating the hadiths. Compiling the history of era of the Allah's Messenger (PBUH) and his companions (on them be mercy) was also its impetus. The end product of both of these impetuses was equally the same. Some laid more stress on narrating the events, and some on compiling the injunctions. Since then, the system of Caliphate Khilaafat based on the precept of Messengerhood did remain no more extant anywhere. This is the state till today. So the genuine exposition and process of obedience to Allah and His Messenger also did not come by. During this whole period, hadiths remained the nitty gritty of all condescension (or to that jurisprudence which remained under preparation in accordance with hadiths). It was because there were a few injunctions in the Quran and the pragmatic necessities of life exceedingly outstripped these injunctions. Those subsidiaries bylaws, which the Caliphate (Khilaafat) was to formulate, had to meet these necessities. When centuries elapsed in the same manner, this concept took the root of a firm belief, nay it transformed into conviction that obedience to Allah's Messenger (PBUH) is done by means of hadiths and the renouncer of Ahadith is the renouncer of Messengerhood. It is this very wrong notion that epitomizes the root cause of all entanglement in the matters of Deen.