* Why did we want Pakistan ?
So that we could establish Allah Almighty 's rule!
However, this answer needs some clarification. How would we establish Allah Almighty's rule ? Obviously Allah Almighty will not descend from heavens for ruling our state. One has to ponder over the way in which such a rule would be established.
* Allah Almighty's Rule
Let us discuss how this most difficult problem was solved through Allah Almighty's Wahee (revelations) and how the Messenger Muhammad peace be upon him and his companions put the solution in practice. There are two branches of any system of Government legislation and enforcement. The first entails making laws for governance and prescribing individual and collective behaviour. The second comprises putting the legislation in practice and preventing its disregard or infringement. Obviously, the pivotal part is legislation. For this the Quran lays down that sovereignty (right to pass laws) rests with Allah Almighty. It also says that no one else shares this sovereignty. The Quran summed up these principles thus: Those who will establish a system of government according to the Book will be the Believers; those who would transgress will be non believers.
* Objectives of Demand for Pakistan
Islamic Government is the group of Believers that undertakes to enforce Allah Almighty's laws. Its role in making laws is limited only to laying down details applicable to principles and values enunciated by the Quran while its chief function is to enforce those laws. That is how establishing Allah Almighty 's rule comes in practice. Ideology of Pakistan too is that sovereignty rests with Allah Almighty. In practical terms this ideology ensures that our freedoms and responsibilities in an Islamic state will be subject to the confines of Book of Allah Almighty. The sum total of the two parts makes up rule of the Quran. The Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah stood for these principles in regard to the new state of Pakistan and its goals.
* Allama Iqbal's Exposition
Allama Iqbal had made clear in his addresses that "From Islamic point of view a state is the end product of an effort to translate ideal concepts of Islam into realities of space and time. This is a task of converting these lofty concepts into collective human conduct"
In that state "Worship" is placing one's self in subservience to laws of Allah Almighty; Establishment of Salaat means shaping a society which is in harmony and with obedience to laws of Allah Almighty. Giving of Zakat implies providing sustenance to all people of the state, indeed to mankind at large. Promoting rightful deeds and prohibiting unlawful acts comprises promoting of what is decreed by the Quran and the Quran forbids prohibiting by law. Shirk (duality) means obeying man's self made laws. In this context, Allama Iqbal said: "Islam does not require loyalty to a crown or a throne; it enjoins keeping faith with laws of Allah Almighty"
* Dangers Facing Pakistan
Hindus had willy nilly accepted partition of India but they were in heart of their hearts not reconciled to it. While Nehru was signing up the partition plan on behalf of the Congress, he was also telling his people that "Our scheme is that we should let Mr. Jinnah have his Pakistan and afterwards create such economic and other factors which would compel Muslims to beg us for rejoining India" (Pakistan Faces India, P.99)
* Concept Of Pakistan
As we said before Allama Iqbal had a dream that the Deen, a way of life that Allah Almighty had given to mankind through the Messenger Muhammad Peace be upon him and put in practice by him should be brought back to the world in its original form. It was a treasure that had been lost by Muslims. He told Muslims that the Islam that was found in various countries of Muslims is not the one, which had been established by the Messenger in Medina. It is infact the Islam fabricated and enforced by monarchies and is being upheld and maintained by our clergy. To renew the original Deenhe was saying, it was necessary that a piece of territory should be secured. This territory should be free of alien systems and in it an Islamic system be established on basis of guidance from the Quran. This was the objective which he placed before the nation in 1930. He was clear in his mind that achievement of that objective would: Enable Islam to free itself from the effects of monarchies and thus to break the shackles of inertia which has gripped the culture, education and sharia of Muslims for centuries. Because of this freedom there will be a renaissance of the Deen. The revived Deen will be closer to spirit of the modern times. (Presidential address at Allah Almighty abad-1930
* Quran's Concept Of Pakistan
Earlier, in his collection of "Khutbat Tashkeel-I-Jadeed" he had observed: Under the present circumstances, the way out for us is to scrape away the stubborn layers of Unislamic influence from the mirror face of Islam that have completely blocked its dynamism and evolution. (We should) renew the genuine values of liberty, integrity and equality and make such a renewal the base on which to erect our moral, social and political systems that should reflect the simplicity as well as universality of real Islam. (Sixth address)
He knew that the toughest opposition to Islam would be from the religious hierarchy because religion had become a means of livelihood for them. When they align themselves with the rulers, religion becomes a means of wielding power and influence too. On the other hand in real Islam the institution of theocracy would lose its existence. Read Iqbal's poetry from end to end, you will find him extremely critical of the Mullah. He holds the Mullah responsible for the ruin of Muslims. He is emphasizing to Muslims: You have lost your pristine quality, O victims of Monarchy, Mullahism and Monasticism !
* Allama Iqbal's Presidential Address
Allama Iqbal expressed his apprehensions in his presidential address to All India Muslim Conference meeting (held March 1932): The grandeur of our Deen is lying shackled by primitive superstitions of our Mullahs and Jurists and is begging to be let free. From spiritual angle we are in a prison house of emotions and situations which we built around ourselves during centuries past. It is a matter of shame for us seniors that we could not prepare our young generation to withstand the economic, political and religious crises that are going to unfold.
In his view the religious hierarchy would oppose the new state because it would be based on laws of the Quran. For this reason it would need a lot of courage and determination to pursue achievement of such a state. He emphasized in his speeches that: Sooner or later the Islamic world is going to face the question whether there is room for evolution in Islamic laws. This is a very important question and would require strenuous mental effort for an answer. The answer should certainly be in the affirmative in case the Islamic world addresses this question in the spirit of Umar, that Umar who was the first and foremost freedom loving mind in Islam and who, during the last moments of life of the Messenger peace be upon him had the courage to say "For us the Book of Allah Almighty will suffice"
* Danger Of Opposition To The Quranic Regime
Allama Iqbal knew that the system based on pure Quranic concepts will be at loggerheads with every non Quranic system, In this system there would be no room for personal rule whether in the form of monarchy, dictatorship, or even in form of Western democracy. It would be opposed to Western Imperialism and to nationalism based on race or territory. It would accept neither Western capitalism nor Soviet communism. For this reason a modern Islamic state would be opposed not only by the religious establishment but also by other nations of the world. No nation will tolerate establishing of the Quranic system in any part of the world. The criticism against the Western nations and civilization that appears in Iqbal's poetry (and with great emphasis) is for warning Muslims that the opposition to their plans would be from the entire world. A religion can be preserved in an alien regime but not the Deen.
As forecast by him, the toughest opposition to Pakistan movement did come from our theocratic establishment and the Peers (custodians of monasteries). The opposition is still continuing. The conflict has been raging from eternity. Allama Iqbal describes institutions of theocracy, monarchy and monasticism as curses for humanity and a calamity from Allah Almighty: There are four calamities in this land. The usurious moneylender, the monarch, the Mullah and the Peer